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Investment Overview for CVS Health (NYSE:CVS)
Prescription Drugs EBITDA Margin: We currently forecast CVS Health's EBITDA margin for prescription drugs to increase marginally, from 16.7% at present to approx. 18%, over our review period. There could be a 5% upside to the Trefis price estimate if margins improve to 20% by the end of our forecast period.
Pharmacy Benefit Management
PBM EBITDA Margin: We currently forecast EBITDA margins for pharmacy services to remain close to 5% over our review period. There could be a marginal upside to the Trefis price estimate if margins were to increase back to the historical levels of 8% over our review period. On the other hand, there will be a similar downside if margins come under pressure due to the acquisition of new contracts and other contract renewals.
Capital Expenditure: We currently forecast capital expenditures as a percentage of EBITDA to remain around 16% - 17% over our forecast period. There could be an approximate 10% downside to the Trefis price estimate if this figure were to rise to the 2000-09 level of close to 25%, by the end of our forecast period.
CVS Health (NYSE: CVS) is the largest pharmacy services provider in the US comprising of the largest network of retail pharmacy stores nationwide along with pharmacy services such as mail-order pharmacy services, prescription plan management and claims processing. CVS fills and manages over 1 billion prescriptions per year through its businesses.
In 2015, CVS operated close to 9,681 stores of which 1,672 were pharmacies located within a Target store. The retail business provides health care services through more than 1,135 retail health clinics and MinuteClinics, which are mostly located inside CVS pharmacies and serve to diagnose and treat minor health issues. The retail pharmacy business also includes an online pharmacy, CVS.com.
CVS retail stores sell prescription drugs and a wide assortment of general merchandise, including over-the-counter (OTC) drugs, beauty products, cosmetics, photo finishing, seasonal merchandise, greeting cards and convenience foods.
In March 2007, CVS merged with Caremark Rx, which brought together the nation’s largest retail pharmacy chain and a leading pharmacy benefit manager. CVS Health's Pharmacy Services business provides a full range of pharmacy benefit management (PBM) services including mail order pharmacy services, specialty pharmacy services, plan design and administration, as well as formulary management and claims processing services. The company's customers are primarily employers, insurance companies, unions, government employee groups, managed care organizations and other sponsors of health benefit plans and individuals throughout the US.
In August 2015, CVS acquired Omnicare broadened the base of pharmacy care to a new dispensing channel, long-term care pharmacy. Omnicare's long-term care (“LTC”) operations include the distribution of pharmaceuticals, related pharmacy consulting and other ancillary services to chronic care facilities and other care settings. Omnicare also provides commercialization services under the name RxCrossroads.
In December 2015, CVS acquired Target Pharmacies, for approximately $1.9 billion. CVS acquired Target’s 1,672 pharmacies which operate in 47 states and will operate them through a store-within-a-store format, branded as CVS Pharmacy. The Company also acquired 79 Target clinic locations which will be re-branded as MinuteClinic. The Company acquired the Target pharmacy and clinic businesses primarily to expand the geographic reach of its retail pharmacy business.
As a pharmacy benefits manager, CVS Health manages the dispensing of pharmaceuticals through its 5 fully automated mail order pharmacies and national network of approximately 68,000 retail pharmacies (which include its own CVS/pharmacy and Longs Drugs® stores) to eligible members in the benefit plans maintained by its clients. It utilizes proprietary information systems to perform safety checks, drug interaction screenings and brand to generic substitutions.
Prescription drug sales is a major source of value for CVS Health, accounting for 45% of its total value
Accessibility of stores and convenient shopping experience make CVS an attractive destination for consumers.
CVS has a large network of strategically located retail drugstores across the US. It has around 9,681 pharmacy locations and around 75% of the U.S. population lives within a three mile radius of a CVS store, lower than any of the other drugstore chains in the U.S. (Walgreen claims to have 75% population within five mile radius). This makes CVS stores more accessible to a larger number of consumers than other pharmacies.
CVS employs over 34,000 pharmacists, nurse practitioners and physician assistants (more than Walgreen's number of 17,000) who are responsible for interfacing with patients, advising customers and providing them more personalized attention as compared to other retail pharmacy chains.
CVS has about 1,135 in-store MinuteClinics across 28 states, making it easy to get treatment for common ailments, receiving vaccinations or obtaining health screenings. More than 70% of CVS stores are either open round-the-clock or offer extended hours, and over 60% have drive-thru windows, offering greater convenience to customers.
Pharmacy Benefit Management is a major source of value for CVS Haelth, accounting for almost 40% of its total value
CVS's business strategy centers on providing innovative pharmaceutical solutions and quality client service in order to enhance clinical outcomes for its clients’ health benefit plan members, while assisting its clients and their plan members in better managing overall health care costs. In addition, as a fully integrated pharmacy services company, CVS Health is able to offer its clients and their plan members a variety of programs and plan designs that benefit from its integrated information systems and the ability of its more than 34,000 pharmacists, nurse practitioners and physician assistants to interact personally with the plan members.
In 2015, CVS operated 11 specialty mail order pharmacies and a network of 24 retail specialty pharmacy stores, which operate under the CarePlus CVS/pharmacy name in the U.S. The company also maintains a national network of approximately 68,000 retail pharmacies, including CVS/pharmacy stores.
CVS Health's clients are primarily sponsors of health benefit plans (employers, insurance companies, unions, government employee groups and MCOs) and individuals located throughout the U.S.
Increasing demand and utilization of prescription drugs in the U.S.
An aging population combined with the fact that older people contribute to a larger proportion of expenditures on drugs will lead to an increase in the prescription drugs market size. An observation from CVS Health's 2009 annual report supports our view:
"Looking at demographics, the number of people in the United States who are 65 or older will jump to roughly 47 million in 2015 and to 55 million by 2020. This age group fills an average of more than 25 prescriptions per person annually – 30% more than people between the ages of 55 and 64. That will increase utilization dramatically for years to come and will help drive the growth of both our PBM and retail businesses."
The 2010 US health reform legislation is expected to increase prescription drug sales
Approximately 30 million uninsured Americans will gain coverage under the reform legislation and the US government will increase outlay on prescription drugs driven by an expansion of Medicaid and Medicare Part D plans. This will help drive prescription sales going forward.
Accelerating sales of generic drugs and private label goods to positively impact gross profit margins of retail stores.
Generic drugs offer approximately 50% higher gross margins compared to branded drugs. The total generic dispensing rate, which factors the percentage of generic drugs in a consumer’s prescription, grew to about 83.7% in 2015 compared to 82.2% in 2014 and 80.5% in 2013, respectively. Generic drugs continue to replace branded drugs, albeit at a slower pace. With the expansion of generic drug sales in the U.S. (even if the pace is expected to slow down), each script will bring an incremental $5-7 in profits, allowing up to 10% growth in EBIT margins.
Private labels have grown increasingly popular among US consumers as they offer the same quality as established brands and are priced lower. This offers customers value while providing CVS with significantly higher margins.
Private label products accounted for close to 26.5% of front-store sales in 2015, declining from 28.8% in 2014. CVS management believes that the decline is due to the removal of tobacco products and the associated basket sales.
Turnaround of the PBM segment
CVS has been aggressively trying to grow its Pharmacy Benefits Management (PBM) business after suffering from some major setbacks in 2009-2010. It has witnessed a dramatic turnaround by winning high profile contracts from CalPERS, Medco Health and Aetna in the last few years.
In July 2010, CVS concluded a $9 billion 12-year agreement to provide health insurance carrier Aetna with a broad range of PBM services. In May 2011, CVS won a 3-year contract worth $3 billion to provide integrated pharmacy services for the Blue Cross and Blue Shield Government Service Benefit Plan or Federal Employee Program (FEP). Contracts with Aetna and FEP have helped arrest the decline in the number of pharmacy claims and provided a much needed upside to CVS Health's pharmacy benefit management business. As a result, the Pharmacy Services revenues grew by 24% and 25% in 2011 and 2012, respectively. The growth rate slowed to 13% in 2015. Pharmacy benefit management currently contributes over 38% to the company's intrinsic value.
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Trefis has a team of in-house Analysts who gather historical data from company filings and other verifiable sources. When historicals are available, we explain how we got them at the bottom of the Trefis analysis section below.
Who came up with the Trefis forecast for future years?
The Trefis team of in-house Analysts considers a variety of factors when projecting any forecast. The rationale for our projections is explained in the Trefis analysis section below.
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- We use forecasts for business drivers to calculate forecasted Revenues and Profits for each division of the company.
- We then use forecasted Profits in a Discounted Cash Flow (DCF) model to obtain the Price Estimate for the company.
See more on: DCF Methodology
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